Socials 11

Here you can find:
- A complete "Glossary of Terms" for Socials 11,
- Notes on every major unit taught in Socials 11
- Provincial Exam Preparation Questions and Answers Sheets.

My notes are "condensed" - they come from COUNTERPOINTS & FALK'S WORKBOOK FOR SOCIALS 11

There are two editions of the "CounterPoints" Textbook and I used the information from both the old edition and the new (2nd) edition to make these notes. The notes are self-explanatory and written in plain language which makes studying a lot easier. I recommend printing the notes and having them with you in class - as the teacher points out important information, highlight and make your own annotations on the side of the page. My students have shown great improvement in exam grades once they started using this method.
All the notes contain Question & Answer sections - pay special attention to those as they serve as review for Midterms and Finals.

Membership gives you access to all the notes which should make your Socials 11 studies a much easier and enjoyable experience.


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Free Preview: Chapter 1 Notes [CounterPoints]
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They also include a Question & Answer Section to make studying for exams easier.
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Chapter 1 [Counterpoints] – Notes

Early 20th century Canada – Victorian era – 1837-1901 – Queen Victoria ruled (a period of moral strictness); Canada was ruled by British people and most people in Canada were “Anglophones” (supporters of Britain)
Active in Canada was the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union which supported Prohibition and actively tried to get women the right to vote (suffrage/suffragists)
At this time, Canada is still a British nation – although it has its own government, it doesn’t have the right to make decisions for itself when it comes to international issues – such as disputes with other countries.
The Alaska Boundary Dispute – England settled that a waterway (Lynn Canal) which belonged to BC actually was part of Alaska – England gave this to the US in order to maintain peace with them. Canadians were angered because sometimes English decisions did not have Canada’s best interests in mind.

French-Canadian Nationalists
Imperialists – people who support imperialism, the policy of one nation acquiring, controlling or domineering another; these people in Canada, supported England
Historically, French-Canadians have been nationalists, believing that Canada should be independent and autonomous (meaning completely free) from England.
Nationalists – people who have a strong attachment to their culture or nation
Autonomy – the power to govern oneself and make one’s own decisions – as a country
Homesteaders – newcomers who claimed and settled land
Ethnocentric – the belief that one’s culture is superior to that of other cultures and that other cultures must be judged by its values
Head tax – a few that Chinese immigrants were required to pay after 1885 in order to enter Canada
Disputes over language rights have always separated the English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians.
Canada’s population is increasing thanks to promotions such as cheap land and advertising – most immigrants come from the US and Eastern Europe.

Cultural Extinction or Assimilation?
The white people/white government of Canada attempted to “assimilate” the Native People by making them more “European.” This was done my putting Native peoples on reserves, forcing to take up farming, sending the Native children to residential schools and prohibiting them from speaking their language or practicing any traditions.
Urbanization – the process of quick city development caused by industry – because there are more opportunities to get jobs in the cities, many people move to the city; thus cities grow fast but there are many problems associated with the growth such as huge differences between rich and poor, overcrowding, pollution and diseases
A new care for the environment – many provincial governments and the federal government start realizing the importance of protecting the environment – they set aside parks and protected areas and they set up laws to ensure that natural resources are protected

Here’s a more extended version of this chapter – ***NOTE THAT YOU DON'T NEED TO KNOW CHAPTER 1 FOR PROVINCIAL EXAM

1911 – Canada’s population is 7.2million people; today around 30 million
Society and Manners
Canada at the beginning of the 20th century was heavily influenced by the era of Queen Victoria. The Victorians (middle and upper class families) that lived in Canada borrowed the values and the manners from the English and imposed them in Canada.
- Appearance of moral strictness
- Very clear difference between right and wrong, moral and immoral
- Very important that families attended church and were devoted to England
- Duty, honor and virtue were the most important human qualities
- Little tolerance for those who broke the law: death was the punishment for murder; prison was the punishment for theft and drunkenness
- Laziness was considered the cause for being poor
- Courtship was a formal affair: the community had to watch the youngster’s every move
- Once married women had almost no rights over children or property
- Divorce was very rare
- Women were not considered persons under the law – they had little rights and no right to vote or participate in political life
Suffrage = the right to vote (for women)
Suffragists – a group of women fighting to obtain the right to vote
- Wanted the right to vote so that they could influence the government to address certain social problems such as child labor, pollution and poverty
- Tried to obtain the banning of alcohol since alcoholism was a widespread problem.
o Nellie McClung (well known suffragist)

Arts and Leisure
People like to go swimming and do other water sports in the summer as well as running and cycling, while in the winter, tobogganing was a main activity.
Painters, poets and writers all start praising and depicting the beauty of country life.
Still a British Nation
When it came to external affairs, Britain still decided for Canada and often the decision were not in the best interest of Canada. When negotiating the exact border between BC and Alaska, Britain chose to give US a piece of land containing the Lynn Canal, which rightfully belonged to Canada.
Britain was caught in the Boer War in Africa for quite a few years and did not want to enter another conflict with the US; therefore they decided to give Lynn Canal to the US. Imperialists from Canada supported Britain and its decisions but many other Canadians were angry about it.
French-Canadians saw themselves as Canadiens and not as British subjects. They were nationalists and believed that Canada should be independent from Britain. When the Canadian government agreed to send volunteers to fight for England in Africa and later on in WWI, the nationalists and their leader – Henri Bourassa – protested against it. Bourassa expressed his nationalist view by resigning from Laurier’s Cabinet.
The French lost the right to educate children in Catholic schools in French in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. The people of Quebec felt abandoned and neglected by the Canadian government since their language rights were not being protected.
Canada’s Changing Population
Laurier launched a campaign to get an increase in immigration – he circulated posters in US and in Europe. The large wave of immigrants came because entry in Canada was very easy.
The government offered new immigrants willing to start farming 160 acres of land in the Prairies for only $10.
Not everyone is welcomed (at this time, only white immigrants are encouraged to come)
Many Canadians were ethnocentric – believed their own race and group was superior.
Many immigrants were discriminated against; many French people feared this invasion of immigrants as destroyers of the French culture.
Eastern Europeans – Ukrainians and Poles were ridiculed and marginalized for their customs.
R.B. Bennett, Canadian Prime-Minister, said in 1907 that BC was supposed to remain a white man’s country, talking about the influx of Japanese, Chinese and East Indian immigrants.
When white workers revolted against Asian immigrants the BC government put many restrictions on immigrants coming from China and Japan. Later on, the same government imposed a virtual ban on immigrants from India.
Aboriginal Peoples
Aboriginal peoples lived on reserves or designated areas of land which the government often partitioned or repossessed when they needed more land for homesteaders. Aboriginal peoples were expected to take up farming and give up on their traditional, hunting-based lifestyle but this lead to many people going hungry.
The Aboriginal population was in decline because of the poor living conditions. In residential schools (school for Native children run by Churches) the living conditions were so bad that many kids died from tuberculosis.
The government had a policy of assimilation towards the Native people – they wanted the Aboriginal people to take on the European way of life.

The population in the cities was growing rapidly. Some immigrant groups – Jews – tend to settle more in towns because those seemed more familiar to them. In the cities there was a very obvious difference between the rich and the poor. In the poor parts of the city the workers lived in terrible conditions and experienced diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and typhoid.
An economy transformed
Canada’s economy grew as its population grew.
Timber, wheat and minerals were the main exports. Mining was also a major industry. The economic boom of the early 1900’s led to a great development.
Technological developments: the telephone (about 300 000 in Canada in 1911) as well as wireless Radios.
Automobiles started appearing on Canadian streets.
Corporate Giants
Maple Leaf Milling, Dominion Steel, Massey-Harris and Imperial Oil controlled most of the industry. They produced cheap goods and paid low wages to their workers.
Trade unions appear asking for safer working conditions, reduced hours of work and better salaries. Strikes were common and would often get violent so the police and the military would be called in to settle the fighting.
1914 – Canada was in recession – industries cut back on production; many people became unemployed.
Resources and the environment
1914 – Residents of BC saw a disaster caused by a railway building company – an explosion led to a rockslide that partially blocked the Fraser River and stopped the salmon from swimming upstream. The rocks remained in the river for about 30 years until a fish ladder was built to allow salmon to swim upstream.
1914 – BC government puts aside 3 national parks – Mount Ravelstoke, Kootenay and Glacier National Park.